Tooth decay in children

Tooth decay in children

Most parents believe that caries can only be on the chewing surface of the tooth and when they look into the mouth of the baby - do not see problems, thinking that the tooth is visually intact, and therefore not damaged. But this is not always the case. The dentist may see hidden caries.

Below we list the main causes, classifications, criteria and treatments for caries in baby teeth.

Types of dental caries in children

Caries varies in depth:

  • Initial caries - characterized by the appearance of stains on the teeth, but the defect is still absent.
  • Superficial - caries, which forms a defect on the surface of the enamel.
  • Medium - the defect not only affects the enamel, but also dentin superficial.
  • Deep is a defect that affects the deep layers of dentin.

By location:

  • Fissure (on the chewing surface of the tooth).
  • Approximal (ie on lateral surfaces).
  • Pineal (near the gums).

Caries is a pathological process that develops after the eruption of the teeth, destroying the hard tissues of the tooth, after which a carious defect is formed. The causes of caries can be both internal and external factors.

Internal factors can originate from the pre-natal period, when the tooth begins to lay, at the sixth week of pregnancy. If during this period the pregnant woman will show toxicosis, the threat of miscarriage or diseases requiring the administration of drugs - may develop a pathological process in the hard tissues of the baby's teeth, which will manifest after eruption. Internal factors include: somatic diseases (diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases), malnutrition, stressful situations and so on.

External factors are poor hygiene at home because plaque is a pathogenic microflora that secretes organic acids and begins to destroy tooth enamel. A special role in the occurrence of dental caries is played by the microorganism - Streptococcus Mutans. This microorganism streptococcal series is transmitted by the contact-household way, and is in the oral cavity throughout life, for example, when kissing the mother and baby, when licking the spoon and teats of the baby adults.

Importantly! All baby hygiene products, as well as spoons, cups, must be individual.

Also, dental caries appear during the period when the baby is fed, that is, after teething. During this period, parents begin to sweeten water, teas, compotes, thereby "ensuring" the carbohydrates get into the tooth not yet formed, and then the caries of the baby tooth begin to form, and this process is called "bottle" caries.

Is tooth decay possible without caries?

Of course it is possible. Dentistry is actively developing, there are many methods that help prevent the formation of tooth decay, and then permanent. The main stage is called prevention.

It is important to understand that a visit to the dentist should be planned at the age of six months, when the baby will only begin to erupt the first teeth. This will allow you to see the signs that may indicate the presence of caries of the baby's tooth, the doctor will give the necessary recommendations for dental care at home.

It is essential for children to have a routine checkup every 3-6 months, depending on the child's level of health, professional hygiene should be performed as it is significantly different from home care.

Prevention in the doctor's office

The iStomatolog uses a large arsenal of ammunition to combat tooth decay:

Ozone therapy, with the use of ozone (O3), by HealOzone (Kavo Dental, Germany) is a completely painless procedure that does not require no painkillers, helps to suppress cariesogenic bacteria within 10-40 seconds.

Sealing of fissures - after eruption the tooth undergoes a stage of mineralization, ie it is formed for another 3-5 years, depending on the group membership of the permanent tooth. During this period the tooth is very sensitive to various stimuli. On the teeth of the teeth there are anatomical formations in which the food may be delayed, and during this period it is important to close these formations (fissures) with sealant.

It is advisable to cover the tooth as soon as it is cut through, since in the future the tooth will not need to be cleaned, pigmentation removed, "non-invasive sealing". If the pigmentation is still formed, it must still be covered with sealant, but before that the pigmentation "invasive sealing" must be removed.

Treatment of caries of milk teeth

Treatment of baby teeth is very different from the treatment of permanent teeth and depends on many factors: the degree of root formation, the degree of tooth destruction, the state of health of the child, even the age and behavior of the child in the chair at the dentist.

It is important to correctly diagnose the caries process. Diagnosis is not only a visual examination of the oral cavity, but also additional methods such as x-ray. Some parents are horrified to hear what an X-ray is to do, afraid of radiation. It should be noted that a person receives irradiation not only from x-ray but also from objects used in everyday life (mobile phone, washing machine, microwave oven). Your baby may not be using these items, but may be in close proximity.

For dentistry in our dentistry uses a modern visiograph, which gives minimal doses of radiation and does not harm the health of the baby.

Remeralizing therapy - a procedure that is relevant for the initial stage of tooth decay when the caries is at the stain stage, as fluorine and calcium based drugs help to stop the caries.

Saforaid (Japan) is actively used in our clinic. The drug is a colorless transparent solution containing silver and fluorine, which makes the drug actively embedded in the structure of the tooth, making it strong and smooth. In addition, the drug has the ability to penetrate deep into the tooth to the neurovascular bundle, suppressing pain associated with inflammation of the nerve. This is very important when there is a deep caries defect, the nerve of the tooth does not hurt, but slowly dies, so the child does not feel toothache. The preparation is applied with a brush directly to the damaged tooth, as you understand such a method of preventing and treating caries is absolutely painless.

Ozone therapy is topical for initial and superficial caries, which is localized in the fissures, on the smooth surfaces of the tooth and in the patellar region. This method of therapy is also completely painless.

Sealing of carious cavity with significant destruction (middle and deep caries) - procedure is to remove pathological process and place the defect with a seal.

Caries is a pathology that is asymptomatic for some time and may not bother, but it manifests very quickly in children, and with untimely treatment can give a number of complications not only local but also complications that will endanger your baby's life.

iStomatologist warns - do not delay your visit to your dentist until later. Earlier means better.

Tooth decay in children

Dr. Lidia Bulygina

Specialization: endodontics, pediatric dentistry
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